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  1. Jürgen Renn
  2. British Journal for the History of Science
  3. Lloyd Ackert, PhD
  4. Navigation menu

Hacking, In- tion for us and others not, have made some evitabilists tie their thesis to a realist, teleological projects and not others possible and impor- intuition: Science aims at an accurate represen- tant. Contingentists, focus the resources of the scientific community on the other hand, are anti-realists, who drive a on the investigation of certain issues, at the ex- wedge between the instrumental achievements of pense of others.

Thus, causality and contingency science and its putative closeness to the way na- are two sides of the same coin. In this respect, ture actually is. Even The contingency highlighted by Lilley and though I think there are difficulties in that the- Rorty may be crucial from a historiographical sis, whose scope thereby has to be reduced,4 and a political point of view.

From an epi- I cannot deny its fruitfulness from a historiogra- stemological perspective, however, it is inno- phical point of view. Commentary 03 on Lilley and Truesdell 35 by sober historians and philosophers of science will inevitably affect our historical accounts of have showed that historical contingency has been how it was produced and legitimated.

Further- operative in crucial episodes of the history of sci- more, philosophical questions may play a heuris- ence. For example, Jim Cushing, following in tic historiographical function. More recently, Gregory guided recent historical work. These studies suggest, I think, that we can- not settle in an a priori fashion which kinds of Acknowledgments factors are relevant to understanding a past sci- entific episode. And those questions, in sue of Centaurus.

Pace Truesdell, there is no unique essay. This is one of the points in draft. This plea for a pluralist historiography is in Theodore Arabatzis tune with the current state of our discipline. A comparative glance tarabatz phs. A plurality of histori- ographical perspectives can be an asset, making 1. See Pickering The links between historical contingency and cipline that all those different approaches should counterfactual history are explored in an illumi- share a common methodological commitment: a nating way in Ben-Menahem Gregory Radick has denied that there are Let me close with a remark on one strand necessary conceptual connections between in- in this pluralist historiography that is close to evitabilism and realism, on the one hand, and my heart: integrated history and philosophy of contingentism and antirealism, on the other science.

My brief comments on contingency in- Radick, It remains the case, however, dicate that implicit or explicit philosophical that, as a matter of fact, those connections are positions about the nature, scope, and aim of sci- present. If our aim 4. See Arabatzis , p. By the way, this is not all that different from , our views on its sources and validity what Lilley was arguing 55 years ago. The quote is from p. Fox, R. Hasok Chang advocates a related, though not erva, 44, — Gillispie, C. Review of R. Olby, G. Cantor, R. Christie, 8. See, respectively, Chang, ; Andersen, M.

Hodge eds. Companion to the history of Barker, and Chen, ; Arabatzis, and modern science], Isis, 82, 94— Hacking, I. Schickore, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. HI — Power, Leadership, and Governance in Africa and the Caribbean Haitian Revolution; British Caribbean, leadership, governance, and power in Africa during the period of legitimate trade; visionaries, dictators, and nationalist politics in the Caribbean; chiefs, western elites, and nationalism in colonial Africa; road to governance in post-colonial Caribbean and Africa.

HI — Atlantic Africa and the Slave Trade Examines--both by region and across the larger Atlantic area--the ways that overseas commerce, in particular the slave trade, interacted with and was shaped by African politics and economic variables. HI — History, Islam, and Politics in the MENA Explores how the colonial experience shaped North African culture and society, and how the North African postcolonial state negotiated the legacy of colonialism and responded to the dynamics underpinning global politics.

Andrea Bréard (白安雅), Dr. Dr. habil.

HI — Twentieth-Century European Thought and Culture This course treats artistic, musical, literary, political, and philosophical works historically. Among its large themes are modernism and the discovery of the unconscious, the cultural effects of both World Wars, democracy and its critics, totalitarian culture, existentialism, and postmodernism. HI — European Dimensions of the Black Diaspora Explores writings about the Black experience in Europe since the s through examinations of historical and literary works, artistic and folkloric depictions, as well as politics and sports in England, France, Germany, Russia, and the Netherlands.

HI — Black Radical Thought Black radical thought in America, Europe, and Africa since the eighteenth century through writings of abolitionists, leaders of revolutions and liberation movements, Black nationalists, and Black socialists. Emphasizes the global nature of the "Black World" and its role in world history. HI — Early Chinese History From the Bronze Age to the seventeenth century, China changed dramatically yet maintained political and cultural cohesion, unlike any other civilization.

This course explores both diversity and unity in early Chinese society as well as their historical legacies. HI — Modern Chinese History Since , China experienced Manchu imperial expansion, conflict with the West, two revolutions, and the construction of a socialist society now dominated by authoritarian capitalism. Explores the interplay between enduring traditions, upheaval and modernity, and their consequences for our world. The social, cultural, political, and economic history of Shanghai is used as a lens to understand the making of modern China.

Jürgen Renn

Themes include the role of the city's colonial past in shaping its history. Students visit significant sights and museums. It was not always this way, and the course will map three centuries of this complex historical relationship, filled with mutual admiration and misunderstanding. Focus on Japan's economic, political, and social adjustment to modern times, the evolution of twentieth century Japanese imperialism, and Japan's growth after World War II.

Covers themes such as similarities and dissimilarities, images and stereotypes, discrimination and oppression, resistance and adaptation, community and family. HI — The Sword, the Cross, and the Crescent: Byzantium and the Near East Examines Byzantine society and culture, focusing on conflicts and cooperation with the Islamic East until , when Muslim Ottomans captured Constantinople and radically altered life and politics in the eastern Mediterranean.

Explores lessons from Byzantine-Muslim relations for the twenty-first century. Themes include geopolitical competition for regional hegemony, the conversion to Christianity, adoption of the Armenian alphabet, quality of leadership under the five kingdoms, and the national struggle for survival. HI — Modern Armenian History and Literature Introduction to modern Armenian history and literature from the nineteenth-century "cultural renaissance" to the upheavals of the twentieth century--genocide, independence, and Sovietization--and the literatures of Soviet Armenia and the diaspora.

Analysis of Armenian-Turkish relations after the Young Turk revolution in Focuses on the processes of genocide, survivor memory, and international responses. Analysis of the constitutional revolutions in Turkey and Iran, Kemalism, the Islamic revolution in Iran, and communism in the Soviet Union and Afghanistan. Explores advantages and problems of modernization, nationalism, and major power geopolitics within the context of international political economy.

HI — History of Genocide History and comparative analysis of genocidal mass murder with focus on the twentieth century. Attention to political leaders, state ideology, dehumanization of victim groups, geopolitical competition, war, empire building and decline. Examines political developments; Persian literature, visual arts, and culture; Iranian Islam, and religious minorities. Objective is to introduce students to a specific geographical and historical experience, as well as to acquaint them with some of the literature in the field.

Students gain a broad understanding of central aspects of the "Jewish political tradition" from biblical times until today -- in Europe, the Americas, and the modern Middle East. HI — Americans and the Middle East Examines the intersecting histories of America and the Middle East from the late eighteenth century to the present, focusing first on American missionary and educational efforts in the region and then on American political and military involvement after World War II.

HI — Mecca to Dubai: Cities in the Middle East Examines Middle Eastern history through the lens of its cities because cities have always been pivotal sites of governance, religious life, cultural development, architectural legacies, and political protest. Today, they are the epicenter of neoliberal globalization. HI — Israel: History, Politics, Culture, Identity Using a broad array of readings, popular music, documentaries, film and art, this course explores Israel's political system, culture, and society, including the status of minorities in the Jewish state; post Israeli settlement projects; and the struggle for Israel's identity.

HI — Israeli-Palestinian Conflict History of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, analysis of conflicting narratives through primary sources and film. Students present their own reflections on the conflict and debate possibilities of resolution. Firsthand study of the island's history, culture, and politics, toward understanding of the local, international, and transnational processes that shaped and continue to shape this unique society. HI — Introduction to Latin American History Analysis and discussion of the historical and cultural antecedents of Latin America; the influence of geographic, cultural, and economic forces on the land, people, and patterns of social change during the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Introduction to the patterns and complexities of Latin American politics and foreign policies. Focuses on the distinctive Latin American political experience and alternative explanation for it, including colonization, the international economy, and human and material resource capacity and utilization. Topic for Spring History, Memory, Meaning. Topics include: tensions between history and memory, structure of historical narratives, contrast between interpretation and understanding, does history have a meaning? HI — Senior Honors Seminar 1 The first of a two-semester seminar that guides students through the research and writing of an honors thesis grounded in primary historical research.

Students participate in a workshop environment and are matched with an additional faculty advisor. HI — Senior Honors Seminar 2 The second of a two-semester seminar that guides students through the research and writing of an honors thesis grounded in primary historical research. HI — Monks, Friars, and Saints Examines various aspects of the concept of holiness in medieval society. Principal focus on the monastic and mendicant orders, tracing the changing ideals of Christian sanctity and the impact of those ideals on social movements, economic developments, and state policies.

Magic, witchcraft, and the demonic as understood, employed, and feared in medieval Christian, Jewish, and Muslim communities. Exploration of religious world views; visual culture; healing and medical practices; matters of gender, power, and social control, including counter-magic, legal prohibitions, and inquisition. HI — War in Film and Literature This course explores, through works of film and literature, human experiences of combat, suffering, and death.

Topics include religion, storytelling, material life, social and political organization, law and justice, gender roles, witchcraft and popular crusades, and the impact of the printing press. The current offering focuses on the persecution of religious dissents, minorities, and witches; Wars of Religion; and the slow spread of ideas of toleration. HI — England from Reformation to Revolution Transformation of English society in the period between and , and the origins of England's global expansion in the seventeenth century. HI — Communism, To some, communism posed a threat to freedom; to others, it promised social justice and rights for women and minorities.

This course investigates communism's ideological origins, triumph in Russian and Eastern Europe, influence on Western European politics, and ultimate collapse. HI — Music and Ideas from Mozart to the Jazz Age Studies masterpieces of music alongside relevant works of fiction, philosophy, criticism, and cultural history to situate compositions in their larger context. The course includes music by such artists as Beethoven, Wagner, and Schoenberg, as well as Davis, Coltrane, and Ellington.

Emphasizes the creation of popular dictatorships through propaganda, repression, and racism, and ends with the fascist attempt to remake Europe through violence and genocide. HI — Research Seminar and Tutorial in English History Considers the relationship between the past and the present, and surveys the evolution of key historiographical trends in modern English--and British--history, and how various types of sources have illuminated different aspects of the past.

HI — Monarchy in Modern Britain A seminar probing seminal moments in the history of modern British sovereignty, when the politics of the court intersected with the politics of the people. Particular consideration is given to how monarchy has survived as an institution. HI — Histories of Human Rights Traces Westerners' development of a humanitarian sensibility in the eighteenth century and considers how this sensibility was deployed in struggles over the rights of various groups during the modern period.

Emphasis on Anglo-American contributions. HI — The Great War and the Fragile Peace Exploration of the military, political, social, economic, and cultural consequences of the First World War and the peace conference of Focuses on technological innovations, the expanded role of the state, and the long-range impact of the Versailles settlement.

HI — Refugee Hollywood Examines the flight of artists, writers, and intellectuals from Germany to Los Angeles in the wake of Hitler's rise to power with a focus on accounts by the emigres themselves, their works, and their influence on American culture. The course examines German-Jewish encounters from the Enlightenment until today, focusing on emancipation, demographic shifts, minority identity-formation, neo-Orthodoxy, anti-Semitism, Zionism, and responses to the Holocaust.

Explores how Soviet people experienced and participated in such violence as a part of their everyday lives. Two topics are offered Fall Section A1: Blood Libel. Explores accusations of Jewish plotting, ritual murder, and other malfeasance from 12th-century England to the present day. Looks at how myths and conspiracies--however implausible--gain traction and the origins, manifestations, and persistence of anti-Judaism over the past millennium.

Section B1: Race, Gender, and Representation. From abolitionism and women's suffrage to workers' rights and the Movement for Black Lives, this seminar examines marginalized and minoritized peoples' mobilization of visual and print media to clapback and correct pervasive stereotypes and misrepresentations in popular culture. HI — Fashion as History This course covers the history of Switzerland through its art and architecture, from the Romans to the twentieth century, setting the country's development in a wider European context and covering the main movements in art and architecture over that period.

HI — War and American Society, Although committed to democracy, individual liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, Americans have frequently found themselves waging war. This course examines how war mobilization and the experience of combat since the settling of Jamestown have fundamentally changed American society. HI — Religion and American Culture Selected topics on the interaction of religion and American history from the colonial period to the present.

HI — The Civil War in American Memory Examines the ways in which Americans have thought about the experiences of the Civil War, from the immediate postwar period through the later years of the twentieth century. HI — Postwar America: Issues in Political, Cultural, and Social History, Explores how, after the upheavals of World War II, American fought over and refashioned new norms and ideals in politics, daily life, and the home, Topics include youth rebellion, the African American freedom movement, antiwar activism, and the sexual revolution.

HI — American Society since Issues in Domestic Political, Cultural, and Social History A historical investigation of the United States at the end of the American century, including Watergate and the imperial presidency, stagflation, the "New Politics" and the "Me Decade," conservatism, feminism, race relations, religion, politics, culture, community and family life.

Topics include origins and critiques of the culture of consumption; the development of national markets; advertising and commercial amusements; and the relationship of consumer society to religion, gender, ethnicity, and class. HI — The Theater of History A practical workshop in the uses of history as source for theatrical productions including narrative films, television and other forms of performance arts, including dance, and the uses of such creative engagement as modes of historical imagination.

This course examines how commerce, piracy, religious contact, and imperialisms shaped maritime Asia, and how oceans facilitated our own era's global connections. HI — Selected Problems in the Modern Middle East Major events in recent history of the Middle East: emergence of nationalism and intellectual awakening of the Ottoman Empire, impact of western economic penetration, effect of partition, and the seeds of conflict and Egyptian transformation under Nasser.

Examines family and gender structures, ethnic classifications, and military traditions in late dynastic times and how revolution brought change from within and abroad. HI — The African Diaspora in the Americas History of peoples of African descent in the Americas after end of slavery from an international framework. Examines development of racial categories, emergence of national identities in wake of the wars of independence, diverse Black communities in the twentieth century.

How such people imagined themselves, interacted with each other, viewed each other, influenced each other, and borrowed from each other. HI — History of Science Topic for Spring The role of science within American culture from the colonial period to the present. Examines science and race, the secularization of science, science and "pseudo-science," science and sexuality, and the morality of science. HI — Oxford Tutorial in History Students meet regularly with individual tutors to explore a specific subject based on the special interests of the student.

British Journal for the History of Science

Guided by the tutor, students prepare written work culminating in a major work of research, study, and analysis for this advanced tutorial. Analyzes how new evidence alters understanding of events, but also how different eras ask questions about the past, interrogate different sources, and appeal to different audiences. Considers what, if anything, has been distinctive about the Southern experience and how a variety of Americans have imagined the region over time.

HI — The Transformation of Early New England: Witches, Whalers and Warfare Explores how religious schisms and revival, warfare with native Americans, political revolution, and commercial development transformed New England from a Puritanical agricultural society into an urbanized, industrial society by the outbreak of the American Civil War.

Writers from Milton to Hamilton and Jefferson grappled with these transformations that created modern understandings of government. HI — Topics in Legal History Seminar examining current debates in American and international legal history alongside current legal controversies. Students explore legal history through theory and case-studies. Annual topics include religious tolerance, refugees, and sovereignty. Topic for Fall Global History of Tolerance.

Lloyd Ackert, PhD

HI — Enlightenment and Its Critics Explores how eighteenth-century criticisms of the Enlightenment have been taken up by twentieth-century thinkers such as Heidegger, Horkheimer, Adorno, Gadamer, and Foucault; discusses recent defenses of Enlightenment ideals of reason, critique and autonomy by Habermas and others. HI — Histories of Food and Society Introduces themes of the history of food-production, consumption, aesthetics, and ritual through specific historical examples of food and culture s and food diasporas of the modern era.

Examines government policies, social movements, economic conditions and power struggles. Compares direct and indirect intervention by U. HI — Development in Historical Perspective A critical investigation of modern "development" practices and projects in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Explores the rise of development paradigms in the nineteenth century and key twentieth-century transformations; interrogates challenges to, critiques of, and reaffirmations of global development schemes.

HI — Poverty and Democracy: Modern India and the United States in Comparative Perspective Through an examination of historical, empirical, and journalistic evidence, students examine the peculiar and pernicious nature of modern and contemporary poverty in the context of two large democracies, India and the United States. Key themes include formulation of national diplomatic strategies, policy coordination, diplomatic vs.

From , the whole world waged total war in cruel ways unknown to any history before or since. Explore the causes, course, and consequences of these events. HI — Nazis on Film Explores changing representations of Nazis on the silver screen, from celebrations of the "Third Reich" to post depictions of Nazis as evil.

Focuses on the longing for strong leadership, pleasure at inflicting pain on enemies, fear of others, and racism. This seminar investigates US-Soviet culture wars, which shaped not only each society's "way of being," but also international relations. Examines various approaches to and challenges in prevention of genocide, including ability of existing international institutions to develop early warning systems. Evaluation of effectiveness of unilateral military action and multilateral options at the UN and regional levels to stop genocide. Preservation is discussed in the context of cultural history and the changing relationship between existing buildings and landscapes and attitudes toward history, memory, invented tradition, and place.

HI — Nationalism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries Explores the origins of modern nationalism as a major force, molding identity and motivating politics. Examines the relationship between nationalism, revolution, and war, as well as the challenges presented by ethnic revivalism, ethnonational conflicts, and globalization.

HI — Jews in Modern Culture Examines the role and impact of Jews as producers and brokers of modern culture, with focus on fields ranging from psychoanalysis to movies.

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Considers whether Jews' cultural activities were distinctive and, if so, how and why. Topics vary from year to year. Seminar focuses on how and why they did so within the philosophical, religious, literary, antislavery, communitarian, and ecological currents they inhabited. This course investigates how urban spaces facilitated commerce, social life, and the forging of modern identities.

HI — Boston Architectural and Community History Workshop This course focuses on class readings, lectures, and research on a single neighborhood or community in Boston or Greater Boston. Greatest emphasis is on using primary sources-- land titles and deeds, building permits, fire insurance atlases and other maps. Racial thinking in the context of Western encounters with non-European people and Jews; its relation to social, economic, cultural, and political trends.

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HI — Protest and Resistance in the Americas How do ordinary people rise up to challenge economic exploitation, racism, police violence, and environmental harm? HI — Labor, Sexuality, and Resistance in the Afro-Atlantic World The role of slavery in shaping the society and culture of the Afro-Atlantic world, highlighting the role of labor, the sexual economy of slave regimes, and the various strategies of resistance deployed by enslaved people. HI — U.

Topics include the Chicano movement, maquiladora assembly plants, the Zapatista rebellion, youth gangs, free trade, and music and art. Topics include the Atlantic slave trade, power, religion, the economy, resistance movements, health, the state, and kinship. Saraiva, History of Mathematical Sciences. Portugal and East Asia II. Kiyosi Yabuuti tranduction de Kaoru Baba et C. Fan Dainian and R. Cohen, eds. Folkerts, M. Rozanskaja, I. Luther, Mathematikgeschichte ohne Grenzen. Die Korrespondenz zwischen K.

Vogel and A. Vrin, A commemoration on his tercentenary. Somerville, MA: International Press. Appendix on the statistical investigation of a text by Aksakov. A history of Chinese mathematics. With forewords by Jaques Gernet and Jean Dhombres. Corrected 2nd printing. English Berlin: Springer. Guangxi Univ. Nationalities, Nat.

Dordrecht: Springer Synthese Library , Eine Geschichte der statistischen Denkweise. Berlin: Springer, Exact Sci. Preliminary investigation. Studies on the history of science and technology. Festschrift for Ivo Schneider to his 65th birthday. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag Boethius 48 , Les neuf chapitres. Paris: Dunod Historical and philosophical studies on social mathematics.

Paris: INED. Northwest Univ. Chinese J.

Qufu Norm. The history of non-western mathematics. The non-European roots of mathematics. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Quelques remarques.