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This suggests that the further improvement of material quality is urgent. Lee et al. The x value is optimized to achieve suitable properties as absorbers for light-to-charge conversion. The highest PCE is 2. Recently, Chen et al. Correspondingly, the Cs 2 TiBr 6 thin film can be obtained after 24 h. In addition, the device shows good stability panel iii of Figure 7 b. Cs 2 PdBr 6 NC was first synthesized by a simple antisolvent method at room temperature, possessing a band gap of 1. Cs 3 B 2 I 9 , a class of representative lead-free halide perovskites, in which B represents trivalent metal cation especially with lone-pair state e.
The electronic structure of Bi is similar to Pb with ns 2 electrons. Cs 3 Bi 2 I 9 consists of two metal halide octahedral layers, between which the voids are filled by cations panel i of Figure 8 a. Adding excess BiI 3 in precursor solution could improve the device performance, i. In addition, the low PCE is also attributed to the poor charge transport resulted from the discrete nature of the double octahedra i.
Except for the material improvement, Bai et al. The optoelectronic properties of both polymorphs were studied by Saparov et al. While the Cs 3 Sb 2 I 9 with dimer modification has an indirect band gap of 2. The vacancy-ordered 2D layered perovskite Cs 3 Sb 2 I 9 panel i of Figure 9 a exhibits improved optoelectronic properties over 0D dimer modification according to DFT calculation.
Although layered Cs 3 Sb 2 I 9 can exhibit potential photovoltaic behavior, solution-processing Cs 3 Sb 2 I 9 generally favors the formation of dimeric phase with poor photovoltaic properties. Therefore, some efforts have been devoted to stabilize the layered structure of Cs 3 Sb 2 I 9 to avoid dimeric phase formation for solar cell application.
Singh et al. We summarize the best efficiencies of the cesium lead-free halide perovskite devices, as shown in Figure It is obvious that they are far from the lead-based PSCs. The relatively low PCE suggests that the replacement of lead with other metal cations lowers the light-to-current conversion. Despite the inferior performance of lead-free PSCs, we still see great potential for them due to their inherent outstanding optical properties and potential good stability.
Furthermore, the CsSnI 3 is easy to form intrinsic vacancies, leading to metallic conductivity, and therefore short carrier lifetime and severe non-radiative recombination. The double perovskites Cs 2 ABX 6 show enormous potential as excellent candidates for lead-free perovskites because they exhibit prominent stability, especially thermal stability. However, most of the reported double perovskites, i. Thus, it is necessary to find new double perovskites possessing direct bandgap and new fabrication methods to prepare high-quality films.
For Cs 2 BX 6 double perovskites, Cs 2 SnI 6 contains intrinsically deep defects that are detrimental to the PSC performance, which indicates that more efforts toward characterizing defect properties should be made. This may be caused by the poor film formation or lack of proper fabrication method. Besides, it contains the noble element Pd, making it potentially unaffordable. However, they also show potential properties, especially excellent stability, which are important for photovoltaic application. Overall, researchers have made tremendous efforts in improving both efficiency and stability of all inorganic lead-free perovskite devices.
Further enhancement of efficiency of inorganic lead-free PSCs relies on material synthetic approaches, thin film preparation methods, material characterization techniques, interface engineering, and so on.
Exploring new materials of lead-free perovskite with advanced opto-electronic properties and high stability will also accelerate the development of PSCs. We look forward to high efficiency and environmentally friendly lead-free PSCs making a big contribution to future renewable energy utilization. Prior to his current appointment, Prof. Qi was a postdoctoral fellow at Princeton University. He received his B. His research interests include perovskite solar cells, surface sciences, energy materials, and organic electronics.
He received Ph. Prior to his current appointment, he worked as a postdoctoral scholar in Prof. His research interests include surface and interface sciences, photoemission spectroscopy techniques, and solar cells. Xiaotong Li received her B. Her research interest focuses on lead-free perovskite solar cells. Jinbo Wu obtained his B. Prior to his current appointment, Dr. Please login to view your saved searches. Additional Info. PDF K.
Homovalent to Lead. Figure 1. CsSnI 3 shows a sharp absorption edge at 1. Reprinted with permission, Springer Nature, Reprinted with permission, AIP Publishing, Figure 2. Reprinted with permission, American Chemical Society, Reprinted with permission, John Wiley and Sons, Table 1. Figure 3. All films were deposited on ITO-coated glass. Reprinted with permission, Royal Society of Chemistry, Figure 4. Medium spheres: Cs; small spheres: Ge; large spheres: I. Reprinted with permission, IOP Publishing, The two Ge ions Ge 1 and Ge 2 form a covalent bond.
Each of them is coordinated with only two iodine ions. Heterovalent to Lead. Figure 5. The morphology of the as-prepared film can be improved by IPA dropping. Inset: cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy SEM image of the device. Table 2. Figure 6. Reprinted with permission, Elsevier, Vertical lines indicate the standard spectra from PDF card Figure 7. Figure 8. The unit cell is marked with the dark lines and the bismuth iodide octahedra are marked with a cyan color. Figure 9. Cs and I atoms are shown as orange and green spheres, respectively; Sb coordination polyhedra are shown in blue and pink.
Challenges and Opportunities. Figure The best performance of cesium lead-free PSCs reported in literature. The numbers in the legend indicate reference number. Search for Articles Advanced Search in Where we should looking for? Any Title Author Keywords Abstract. Published in. Publication Date All dates. Last: Select month 6 months year. Custom range: From: Year Year Saved Search Please login to view your saved searches.
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